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Crete phaistos



Δίσκος της Φαιστού πλευρά Α 6380
" by C messier - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons.


Δίσκος της Φαιστού πλευρά B 6381
" by C messier - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via Wikimedia Commons.
The Phaistos Disc (also spelled Phaistos Disk, Phaestos Disc) is a disk of fired clay from the Minoan palace of Phaistos on the Greek island of Crete, possibly dating to the middle or late Minoan Bronze Age (2nd millennium BC). It is about 15 cm (5.9 in) in diameter and covered on both sides with a spiral of stamped symbols. Its purpose and meaning, and even its original geographical place of manufacture, remain disputed, making it one of the most famous mysteries of archaeology. This unique object is now on display at the archaeological museum of Heraklion.
The disc was discovered in 1908 by the Italian archaeologist Luigi Pernier in the Minoan palace-site of Phaistos, and features 241 tokens, comprising 45 unique signs, which were apparently made by pressing hieroglyphic "seals" into a disc of soft clay, in a clockwise sequence spiraling toward the disc's center.
The Phaistos Disc captured the imagination of amateur and professional archeologists, and many attempts have been made to decipher the code behind the disc's signs. While it is not clear that it is a script, most attempted decipherments assume that it is; most additionally assume a syllabary, others an alphabet or logography. Attempts at decipherment are generally thought to be unlikely to succeed unless more examples of the signs are found, as it is generally agreed that there is not enough context available for a meaningful analysis.
Although the Phaistos Disc is generally accepted as authentic by archaeologists, a few scholars believe that the disc is a forgery or a hoax.

There are 242 tokens on the disc, comprising 45 unique signs. Many of these 45 signs represent easily identifiable every-day things. In addition to these, there is a small diagonal line that occurs underneath the final sign in a group a total of 18 times. The disc shows traces of corrections made by the scribe in several places. The 45 symbols were numbered by Arthur Evans from 01 to 45, and this numbering has become the conventional reference used by most researchers. Some symbols have been compared with Linear A characters by Nahm,Timm,and others. Other scholars (J. Best, S. Davis) have pointed to similar resemblances with the Anatolian hieroglyphs, or with Egyptian hieroglyphs (A. Cuny). In the table below, the character "names" as given by Louis Godart (1995) are given in upper case; where other description or elaboration applies, they are given in lower case.

Sign UCS Phaistos Disc Sign (Godart and UCS name) Description Count Remarks
01 01 𐇐 PEDESTRIAN marching figure of a man 11
02 02 𐇑 PLUMED HEAD head of man with crested helmet 19 the most frequent symbol, always word-initial (if direction is inwards)
03 03 𐇒 TATTOOED HEAD a bald head in profile, with tattoo or jewellery on the cheek 2 on side A only
04 04 𐇓 CAPTIVE a standing human figure with bound arms 1
05 05 𐇔 CHILD 1
06 06 𐇕 WOMAN 4
07 07 𐇖 HELMET a bell-shaped symbol 18
08 08 𐇗 GAUNTLET fist with cestus 5
09 09 𐇘 TIARA 2 on side B only
10 10 𐇙 ARROW 4 on side A only
11 11 𐇚 BOW 1
12 12 𐇛 SHIELD 17 12 times in the group 02-12
13 13 𐇜 CLUB 6
14 14 𐇝 MANACLES the flat tops of the two prominences in this figure as well as the slots in the base are characteristic features of manacles, the slots being for the attachment of thongs 2 on both sides
15 15 𐇞 MATTOCK 1
16 16 𐇟 SAW knife 2 on side B only
17 17 𐇠 LID instrument for cutting leather 1
18 18 𐇡 BOOMERANG carpenter's angle 12
19 19 𐇢 CARPENTRY PLANE Y shape 3 on side A only
20 20 𐇣 DOLIUM handled vase 2 on side B only
21 21 𐇤 COMB possibly a palace floorplan 2 on side A only
22 22 𐇥 SLING double pipe 5 on side B only
23 23 𐇦 COLUMN square headed mallet 11
24 24 𐇧 BEEHIVE pagoda-like building 6
25 25 𐇨 SHIP a vertical symbol of ship 7
26 26 𐇩 HORN of ox 6
27 27 𐇪 HIDE of animal, probably an ox 15
28 28 𐇫 BULLS LEG ox's foot 2 on side A only
29 29 𐇬 CAT head of animal of the feline family 11
30 30 𐇭 RAM head of horned sheep 1
31 31 𐇮 EAGLE flying bird 5 on side A only
32 32 𐇯 DOVE seated dove 3
33 33 𐇰 TUNNY fish (the horse mackerel or common tunny, Thunnus thynnus) 6
34 34 𐇱 BEE insect, possibly a bee 3
35 35 𐇲 PLANE TREE plant or tree sign; the Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis) 11
36 36 𐇳 VINE olive branch 4 on side B only
37 37 𐇴 PAPYRUS plant with a fan-shaped flower 4
38 38 𐇵 ROSETTE maguerite or star-anemone; eight-petaled flower 4
39 39 𐇶 LILY saffron flower, Ψ shape 4
40 40 𐇷 OX BACK 6
41 41 𐇸 FLUTE 2 on side A only
42 42 𐇹 GRATER 1
43 43 𐇺 STRAINER triangle with internal granulation 1
44 44 𐇻 SMALL AXE 1
45 45 𐇼 WAVY BAND water 6

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Ancient Gortys

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, Gortys or Gortyna (Greek: Γόρτυν, Γόρτυς, or Γόρτυνα) is a municipality and an archaeological site on the Mediterranean island of Crete, 45 km away from the modern capital Heraklion. The seat of the municipality is the village Agioi Deka. Gortyn, the Roman capital of Creta et Cyrenaica, was first inhabited around 3200 BC.
It is located in the valley of Messara in the south of the Psiloritis mountain, in the current position of the settlements of Metropolis and Agioi Deka, and near the Libyan Sea.



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